Proportional Edit

Proportional Edit is a way of transforming selected elements (such as vertices) while having that transformation affect other nearby elements. For example, having the movement of a single vertex cause the movement of unselected vertices within a given range. Unselected vertices that are closer to the selected vertex will move more than those farther from it (i.e. they will move proportionally relative to the location of the selected element). Since proportional editing affects the nearby geometry, it is very useful when you need to smoothly deform the surface of a dense mesh.

Note

Sculpting

Blender also has Sculpting that contains brushes and tools for proportionally editing a mesh without seeing the individual vertices.

Object Mode

Reference

Mode: Object Mode
Menu: Via the prop-edit-icon icon in the header indicated by the yellow square in the below image.
Hotkey: O

Proportional editing is typically used in Edit Mode, however, it can also be used in Object Mode. In Object Mode the tool works on entire objects rather than individual mesh components. In the image below, the green cube is the active Object, while the red and blue cubes are located within the Proportional edit tool’s radius of influence. When the green cube is moved to the right, the other two cubes follow the movement.

../../../../../../_images/editors_3dview_object_editing_transform_control_proportional-edit_object-mode.jpg

Proportional editing in Object Mode.

Edit Mode

Reference

Mode: Edit Mode
Menu: Mesh ‣ Proportional Editing and via the prop-edit-edit-mode-icon highlighted icon
Hotkey: O, Alt-O, Shift-O

When working with dense geometry, it can become difficult to make subtle adjustments to the vertices without causing visible lumps and creases in the model’s surface. When you face situations like this the Proportional editing tool can be used to smoothly deform the surface of the model. This is done by the tool’s automatic modification of unselected vertices within a given range.

../../../../../../_images/editors_3dview_object_editing_transform_control_proportional-edit_edit-mode.png

Proportional editing in Edit Mode.

Influence

You can increase or decrease the radius of the proportional editing influence with the mouse wheel WheelUp, WheelDown or PageUp, PageDown respectively. As you change the radius, the points surrounding your selection will adjust their positions accordingly.

../../../../../../_images/editors_3dview_object_editing_transform_control_proportional-edit_influence.jpg

Influence circle.

Options

../../../../../../_images/editors_3dview_object_editing_transform_control_proportional-edit_tool.jpg

Proportional Editing tool.

../../../../../../_images/editors_3dview_object_editing_transform_control_proportional-edit_falloff-options.jpg

Falloff menu.

The Proportional Editing mode menu is on the 3D View header.

Disable O, Alt-O
Proportional Editing is Off, only selected vertices will be affected.
Enable O, Alt-O
Vertices other than the selected vertex are affected, within a defined radius.
Projected (2D)

Depth along the view is ignored when applying the radius.

../../../../../../_images/editors_3dview_object_editing_transform_control_proportional-edit_2d-compare.png

The difference between regular and Projected (2D) proportional option (right).

Connected Alt-O
Rather than using a radius only, the proportional falloff spreads via connected geometry. This means that you can proportionally edit the vertices in a finger of a hand without affecting the other fingers. While the other vertices are physically close (in 3D space), they are far away following the topological edge connections of the mesh. The icon will have a gray center when Connected is active. This mode is only available in Edit Mode.
Falloff
While editing, you can change the curve profile used by either using the Mesh ‣ Proportional Falloff submenu, using the header icon Falloff menu, or by pressing Shift-O to toggle between the various options.
../../../../../../_images/editors_3dview_object_editing_transform_control_proportional-edit_falloff-constant.png

Constant, No Falloff.

../../../../../../_images/editors_3dview_object_editing_transform_control_proportional-edit_falloff-random.png

Random Falloff.

../../../../../../_images/editors_3dview_object_editing_transform_control_proportional-edit_falloff-linear.png

Linear Falloff.

../../../../../../_images/editors_3dview_object_editing_transform_control_proportional-edit_falloff-sharp.png

Sharp Falloff.

../../../../../../_images/editors_3dview_object_editing_transform_control_proportional-edit_falloff-root.png

Root Falloff.

../../../../../../_images/editors_3dview_object_editing_transform_control_proportional-edit_falloff-sphere.png

Sphere Falloff.

../../../../../../_images/editors_3dview_object_editing_transform_control_proportional-edit_falloff-smooth.png

Smooth Falloff.

Examples

Switch to a front view Numpad1 and activate the Grab tool with G. As you drag the point upwards, notice how nearby vertices are dragged along with it. When you are satisfied with the placement, click LMB to fix the position. If you are not satisfied, cancel the operation and revert your mesh to the way it looked before with RMB, Esc.

You can use the Proportional editing tool to produce great effects with the scaling S and rotation R tools, as Fig. A landscape obtained via proportional editing. shows.

../../../../../../_images/editors_3dview_object_editing_transform_control_proportional-edit_landscape.jpg

A landscape obtained via proportional editing.

Combine these techniques with vertex painting to create fantastic landscapes. The Fig. Final rendered landscape. below shows the results of proportional editing after the application of textures and lighting.

../../../../../../_images/editors_3dview_object_editing_transform_control_proportional-edit_example.jpg

Final rendered landscape.