# Functions for Pivot Table Calculations

You can use the following functions in pivot table calculations.

## Running Total

The **Running total** function calculates the sum of
a given cell value and the values of all cells prior to it. This sum is
calculated as ```
Cell1=Cell1, Cell2=Cell1+Cell2,
Cell3=Cell1+Cell2+Cell3
```

, and so on. For example, suppose that
you have the following data.

Applying the **Running total** function across the
table rows, using **Table across** for
**Calculate as**, gives you the following
results.

## Difference

The **Difference** function calculates the difference
between a cell value and value of the cell prior to it. This difference
is calculated as ```
Cell1=Cell1-null, Cell2=Cell2-Cell1,
Cell3=Cell3-Cell2,
```

and so on. Because ```
Cell1-null =
null
```

, the Cell1 value is always empty. For example, suppose
that you have the following data.

Applying the **Difference** function across the table
rows, using **Table across** for **Calculate
as**, gives you the following results.

## Percentage Difference

The **Percentage Difference** function calculates the
percent difference between a cell value and the value of the cell prior
to it, divided by the value of the cell prior to it. This value is
calculated as ```
Cell1=(Cell1-null)/null, Cell2=(Cell2-Cell1)/Cell1,
Cell3=(Cell3/Cell2)/Cell2,
```

and so on. Because
`(Cell1-null)/null = null`

, the Cell1 value is always
empty. For example, take the following rows.

Applying the **Percentage Difference** function
across the table rows, using **Table across** for
**Calculate as**, gives you the following
results.

## Percent of Total

The **Percent of Total** function calculates the
percentage the given cell represents of the sum of all of the cells
included in the calculation. This percentage is calculated as
```
Cell1=Cell1/(sum of all cells), Cell2=Cell2/(sum of all
cells),
```

and so on. For example, suppose that you have the
following data.

Applying the **Percent of Total** function across the
table rows, using **Table across** for
**Calculate as**, gives you the following
results.

## Rank

The **Rank** function calculates the rank of the cell
value compared to the values of the other cells included in the
calculation. Rank always shows the highest value equal to 1 and lowest
value equal to the count of cells included in the calculation. If there
are two or more cells with equal values, they receive the same rank but
are considered to take up their own spots in the ranking. Thus, the next
highest value is pushed down in rank by the number of cells at the rank
above it, minus one. For example, if you rank the values 5,3,3,4,3,2,
their ranks are 1,3,3,2,3,6.

For example, suppose that you have the following data.

Applying the **Rank** function across the table rows,
using **Table across** for **Calculate
as**, gives you the following results.

## Percentile

The **Percentile** function calculates the percent of
the values of the cells included in the calculation that are at or below
the value for the given cell.

This percent is calculated as follows.

`percentile rank(x) = 100 * B / N Where: B = number of scores below x N = number of scores`

For example, suppose that you have the following data.

Applying the **Percentile** function across the table
rows, using **Table across** for **Calculate
as**, gives you the following results.