Blender provides a variety of tools for editing meshes. These are tools used to add, duplicate, move and delete elements.
These are available through the Menus in the 3D Viewport header, and context menus in the 3D Viewport, as well as individual shortcut keys.
All the "transform precision/snap" keys Ctrl and/or Shift also work for all these advanced operations, but most of them do not have axis locking possibilities, and some of them do not take into account the pivot point and/or transform orientation either.
These transform tools are available in the Transform section of the Mesh menu in the header. Note that, some of these can also be used on other editable objects, like curves, surfaces, and lattices.
Accessing Mesh Tools
The mesh tools are found in various places, and available through shortcuts as well.