Blender provides a variety of tools for editing meshes. These are tools used to add, duplicate, move and delete elements.
These are available through the Mesh Tools panel in the Tool Shelf, the Mesh menu in the 3D View header, and context menus in the 3D View, as well as individual shortcut keys.
All the "transform precision/snap" keys Ctrl and/or Shift work also for all these advanced operations... However, most of them do not have axis locking possibilities, and some of them do not take into account pivot point and/or transform orientation either.
These transform tools are available in the Transform section of the Mesh menu in the header. Note that, some of these can also be used on other editable objects, like curves, surfaces, and lattices.