The mesh Data-Block Menu can be used to link the data between objects.
In geometry, a normal is a direction or line that is perpendicular to something, typically a triangle or surface but can also be relative to a line, a tangent line for a point on a curve, or a tangent plane for a point on a surface. Normals help to determine the shading of the mesh among other things.
See Normal Properties for more information.
Each Object can have an automatically generated UV map, these maps can be adjusted here.
See Generated UV Properties for more information.
See Vertex Groups for more information.
Shape Keys can be used to transform one shape into another. See Shape Keys Panel for more information.
UV Maps are used to map a 3D object onto a 2D plane that determines where a texture appears on the 3D object. Different UV Maps can be used for different textures. For more information see UV Maps Panel.
Color data can be applied directly to an object's vertices rather than using a texture or a material. Colors can are painted onto vertices in Vertex Paint mode.