# 词汇表¶

Alpha通道

RGBA 通道存储为 （R，G，B，A） 通道的方法，其中的RGB通道不受alpha通道的影响。这是绘图程序如Photoshop或Gimp和常见的文件格式，如PNG、BMP或Targa 使用的alpha类型。因此，图像纹理或用于Web的输出通常是直通alpha。

RGBA通道存储为 （R * A，G * A，B * A，A）的方法，其中alpha分别与RGB通道相乘。

（直通型/预乘型）Alpha转换

An Object consisting of bones. Used to rig characters, props, etc.

BU
Blender单位
Internal units used by Blender, equivalent to meters. Often abbreviated to "BU".

Technique for simulating slight variations in surface height using a grayscale "heightmap" texture.
BVH
Bounding Volume Hierarchy

A hierarchical structure of geometric objects.

The optical phenomenon of light concentration focused by specular reflections or refracting objects. In example observable on light passing through a glass of water onto a table or the pattern at the bottom of a swimming pool.

In rendering this refers to diffuse reflected light paths after a glossy or refraction bounce.

Chroma
Chrominance

In general, a resulting image color decomposition, where its (L or Y) luminance channel is separated. There are two different contexts whereas this term is used:

Refers to the general color decomposition resulting in Y (Luminance) and C (Chrominance) channels, whereas the chrominance is represented by: U = ( Blue minus Luminance ) and V = ( Red minus Luminance ).
Matte compositing
Refers to a point in the color gamut surrounded by a mixture of a determined spectrum of its RGB neighboring colors. This point is called Chroma key and this key (a chosen color) is used to create an Alpha Mask. The total amount of gamut space for this chrominance point is defined by users in a circular or square-shaped format.
Chromaticities
The coordinates of the primaries on the CIE 1931 xy chromaticity diagram.

Clamping
Limits a variable to a range. The values over or under the range are set to the constant values of the range's minimum or maximum.
Color Gamut
A gamut traditionally refers to the volume of color a particular color model/space can cover. In many instances, it is often illustrated via a 2D model using CIE Yxy coordinates.

A coordinate system in which a vector represent a color value. By doing so, the color space defines three things:

sRGB
A color space that uses the Rec .709 primaries and white point but, with a slightly different transfer function.
HSV

Three values often considered as more intuitive (human perception) than the RGB system.

Hue
The Hue of the color.
Saturation
Also known as colorfulness, saturation is the quantity of hue in the color (from desaturated -- a shade of gray -- to saturated -- brighter colors).
Value
The brightness of the color (dark to light).
HSL
Hue, Saturation
See HSV.
Luminance
See Luminance.
YUV
Luminance-Chrominance standard used in broadcasting analog PAL (European) video.
YCbCr
Luminance-ChannelBlue-ChannelRed Component video for digital broadcast use, whose standards have been updated for HDTV and commonly referred to as the HDMI format for component video.
+A
The color space holds an additional Alpha Channel.

Face in which one vertex is inside a triangle formed by other vertices of the face.

Convex Face

Property of an edge. Used to define the sharpness of edges in subdivision surface meshes.

A type of object defined in terms of a line interpolated between Control Vertices. Available types of curves include Bézier, NURBS and Poly.

An existing Blender object, which is using its own data, or linked data (data owned and controlled by another Blender object).

The light that has a specific direction, but no location. It seems to come from an infinitely far away source, like the sun. Surfaces facing the light are illuminated more than surfaces facing away, but their location does not matter. A Directional Light illuminates all objects in the scene, no matter where they are.

A method for distorting vertices based on an image or texture. Similar to Bump Mapping, but instead operates on the mesh's actual geometry. This relies on the mesh having enough geometry to represent details in the image.
Display Referenced
Refers to an image whose Luminance channel is limited to a certain range of values (usually 0-1). The reason it is called display referenced is because a display cannot display an infinite range of values. So, the term Scene Referenced must go through a transfer function to be converted from one to the other.
DOF

The distance in front of and behind the subject which appears to be in focus. For any given lens setting, there is only one distance at which a subject is precisely in focus, but focus falls off gradually on either side of that distance, so there is a region in which the blurring is tolerable. This region is greater behind the point of focus than it is in front, as the angle of the light rays change more rapidly; they approach being parallel with increasing distance.

A method of calculating reflections. It involves rendering images at strategic positions and applying them as textures to the mirror. Now in most cases obsoleted by ray tracing, which though slower is easier to use and more accurate.

Rotation method where rotations applied on each X, Y, Z axis component.

Mesh element that defines a piece of surface. It consists of three or more edges.

Chain of consecutive quads. A face loop stops at a triangle or N-gon (which do not belong to the loop), or at a boundary. Otherwise, it is cyclic.

Fake User
A special Data User, a program construct that is used to mark an object (e.g. material) to be saved in a blend-file, even when no Real User is using the object. Objects that are not used by any Data User are not included in saved blend-files.

The area in which objects are visible to the camera. Also see Focal Length.

The distance required by a lens to focus collimated light. Defines the magnification power of a lens. Also see Field of View.
Frame Types

In video compression, a frame can be compressed by several different algorithms. These algorithms are known as picture types or frame types and there are three major types: I, P, and B frames.

I‑frames
The least compressible but don't require other video frames to decode.
P‑frames
Use data from previous frames to decompress and are more compressible than I‑frames.
B‑frames
Use both previous and forward frames for data reference to get the highest amount of compression.
FSAA
Full-Screen Anti-Aliasing

A method of Anti-aliasing on the graphics card, so the entire image is displayed smooth. Also known as Multisampling.

This can be enabled in the User Preferences. On many graphics cards, this can also be enabled in the driver options.

Gimbal

A pivoted support that allows the rotation of an object about a single axis.

A superset of radiosity and ray tracing. The goal is to compute all possible light interactions in a given scene, and thus, obtain a truly photorealistic image. All combinations of diffuse and specular reflections and transmissions must be accounted for. Effects such as color bleeding and caustics must be included in a global illumination simulation.

Glossy Map

HDRI
High Dynamic Range Image

The process of calculating new data between points of known value, like keyframes.

The process of determining the movement of interconnected segments of a body or model. Using ordinary Kinematics on a hierarchically structured object you can, for example, move the shoulder of a puppet. The upper and lower arm and hand will automatically follow that movement. IK will allow you to move the hand and let the lower and upper arm go along with the movement. Without IK the hand would come off the model and would move independently in space.
IOR

A property of transparent materials. When a light ray travels through the same volume it follows a straight path. However, if it passes from one transparent volume to another, it bends. The angle by which the ray is bent can be determined by the IOR of the materials of both volumes.

A frame in an animated sequence drawn or otherwise constructed directly by the user. In classical animation, when all frames were drawn by animators, the senior artist would draw these frames, leaving the "in between" frames to an apprentice. Now, the animator creates only the first and last frames of a simple sequence (keyframes); the computer fills in the gap.

Light Bounces
Refers to the reflection or transmission of a light ray upon interaction with a material. See also Light Paths.

A 3D coordinate system that originates (for Objects) at the Object Origin. or (for Bones) at the Head of the Bone.

Luminance
The intensity of light either in an image/model channel, or emitted from a surface per square unit in a given direction.

Manifold meshes, also called water-tight meshes, define a closed non-self-intersecting volume (see also non-manifold). A manifold mesh is a mesh in which the structure of the connected faces in a closed volume will always point the normals (and there surfaces) to the outside or to the inside of the mesh without any overlaps. If you recalculate those normals, they will always point at a predictable direction (To the outside or to the inside of the volume). When working with non-closed volumes, a manifold mesh is a mesh in which the normals will always define two different and non-consecutive surfaces. A manifold mesh will always define an even number of non-overlapped surfaces.

A grayscale image used to include or exclude parts of an image. A matte is applied as an Alpha Channel, or it is used as a mix factor when applying Color Blend Modes.

Micropolygons
A polygon roughly the size of a pixel or smaller.
MIP
Mip映射
Mip映射

'MIP' is an acronym of the Latin phrase 'multum in parvo', meaning 'much in little'. Mip-maps are progressively lower resolution representations of an image, generally reduced by half squared interpolations using anti-aliasing. Mip-mapping is the process used to calculate lower resolutions of the same image, reducing memory usage to help speed visualization, but increasing memory usage for calculations and allocation. Mip-mapping is also a process used to create small anti-aliased samples of an image used for texturing. The mip-mapping calculations are made by CPUs, but modern graphic processors can be selected for this task and are way faster.

See the mip-map option present in the System Preferences.

MIS
Multiple Importance Sampling

A process of estimating the direction of light rays to improve sampling quality.

Multisampling
See FSAA.

Non-linear Animation
Animation technique that allows the animator to edit motions as a whole, not just the individual keys. Non-linear animation allows you to combine, mix, and blend different motions to create entirely new animations.

Non-Manifold meshes essentially define geometry which cannot exist in the real world. This kind of geometry is not suitable for several types of operations, especially those where knowing the volume (inside/outside) of the object is important (refraction, fluids, booleans, or 3D printing, to name a few). A non-manifold mesh is a mesh in which the structure of a non-overlapped surface (based on its connected faces) will not determine the inside or the outside of a volume based on its normals, defining a single surface for both sides, but ended with flipped normals. When working with non-closed volumes, a non-manifold mesh will always determine at least one discontinuity in the normal directions, either by an inversion of a connected loop, or by an odd number of surfaces. A non-manifold mesh will always define an odd number of surfaces.

• 一些边界和空穴（只有单一连接面的边），若没有厚度的面。
• 不属于任何面（或线）的边和顶点。
• Edges connected to three or more faces (interior faces).
• Vertices belonging to faces that are not adjoining (e.g. two cones sharing the vertex at the apex).

Is similar to Bump mapping, but instead of the image being a grayscale heightmap, the colors define in which direction the normal should be shifted, the three color channels being mapped to the three directions X, Y and Z. This allows more detail and control over the effect.
NURBS
Non-uniform Rational Basis Spline
A computer graphics technique for generating and representing curves and surfaces.

Container for a type (Mesh, Curve, Surface, Metaball, Text, Armature, Lattice, Empty, Camera, Lamp) and basic 3D transform data (Object Origin).
Object Center

OpenGL

Is the technique of minimizing aliasing when representing a high resolution signal at a lower resolution.

Technique that simulates certain kinds of fuzzy phenomena, which are otherwise very hard to reproduce with conventional rendering techniques. Common examples include fire, explosions, smoke, sparks, falling leaves, clouds, fog, snow, dust, meteor tails, stars, and galaxies, or abstract visual effects like glowing trails, magic spells. Also used for things like fur, grass or hair.

Local illumination model that can produce a certain degree of realism in three-dimensional objects by combining three elements: diffuse, specular and ambient for each considered point on a surface. It has several assumptions -- all lights are points, only surface geometry is considered, only local modeling of diffuse and specular, specular color is the same as light color, ambient is a global constant.

The pivot point is the point in space around which all rotations, scalings and mirror transformations are centered.

Vertex 其中三，五，以上边相遇。连接到一个，两个，或四个边缘顶点的是不是一个极点。

Alpha通道.
Primaries
In color theory, primaries (often known as primary colors) are the abstract lights, using an absolute model, that make up a color space.

Computer generated (generic) textures that can be configured via different parameters.

A perspective view is geometrically constructed by taking a scene in 3D and placing an observer at point O. The 2D perspective scene is built by placing a plane (e.g. a sheet of paper) where the 2D scene is to be drawn in front of point O, perpendicular to the viewing direction. For each point P in the 3D scene a PO line is drawn, passing by O and P. The intersection point S between this PO line and the plane is the perspective projection of that point. By projecting all points P of the scene you get a perspective view.

In an orthographic projection, you have a viewing direction but not a viewing point O. The line is then drawn through point P so that it is parallel to the viewing direction. The intersection S between the line and the plane is the orthographic projection of the point P. By projecting all points P of the scene you get the orthographic view.
Face that contains exactly four vertices.

Rotation method where rotations are defined by four values (X, Y, Z, and W). X, Y, and Z also define an axis, and W an angle, but it is quite different from Axis Angle.

A global lighting method that calculates patterns of light and shadow for rendering graphics images from three-dimensional models. One of the many different tools which can simulate diffuse lighting in Blender.

Ray Tracing
Rendering technique that works by tracing the path taken by a ray of light through the scene, and calculating reflection, refraction, or absorption of the ray whenever it intersects an object in the world. More accurate than scanline, but much slower.

A Blender object, which is a Data User. Opposite of Fake User, which is only a program construct.

The change in direction of a wave due to a change in velocity. It happens when waves travel from a medium with a given index of refraction to a medium with another. At the boundary between the media, the wave changes direction; its wavelength increases or decreases but frequency remains constant.

RGB
A color model based on the traditional primary colors, Red/Green/Blue. RGB colors are also directly broadcasted to most computer monitors.

Roll
Roll Angle
The orientation of the local X and Z axes of a Bone. Has no effect on the local Y axis as local Y is determined by the location of the Head and Tail.

A grayscale texture that defines how rough or smooth the surface of a material is. This may also be known as a Glossy Map.

Rendering technique. Much faster than ray tracing, but allows fewer effects, such as reflections, refractions, motion blur and focal blur.
Scene Referenced

An image whose Luminance channel is not limited.

Defines how faces are shaded. Faces can be either solid (faces are rendered flat) or smooth (faces are smoothed by interpolating the normal on every point of the face).
Specular Light

SSS
Subsurface Scattering

Alpha通道.

Subsurf

A subcomponent of a Bone. Has X, Y and Z coordinates measured in the Local Space of the Armature Object. Used in conjunction with the Head to define the local Y axis of a Bone in Pose Mode. The smaller of the two ends when drawn as an Octahedron.
Tessellation
The tiling of a plane using one or more geometric shapes usually resulting in Micropolygons.

The bounding box to use when using Generated mapping to add a Texture to an image.

A coded signal on videotape or film giving information about the frame number and time the frame was recorded. Timecodes are used to sync media between different recording devices, including both audio and video.

Area of the screen visible on all devices. Place text and graphics inside this area to make sure they do not get cut off.

The arrangement of Vertices, Edges, and Faces which define the shape of a mesh. See vertex, edge, and face.

The combined idea of location, rotation, and scale.

Face with exactly three vertices.
User

UV Map

Vertices
A point in 3D space containing a location. It may also have a defined color. Vertices are the terminating points of edges.
Vertex Group顶点组
Collection of vertices. Vertex groups are useful for limiting operations to specific areas of a mesh.

A cubic 3D equivalent to the square 2D pixel. The name is a combination of the terms "Volumetric" and "Pixel". Used to store smoke and fire data from physics simulations.

In animation, a walk cycle is a character that has just the walking function animated. Later on in the animation process, the character is placed in an environment and the rest of the functions are animated.

Assigning vertices to Vertex Groups with a weight of 0.0 - 1.0.
White Point

A reference value for white light defined by what happens when all the primaries, of the particular color model, are combined evenly.

A white point is defined by a set of CIE illuminates which correspond to a color temperature. For example, D65 corresponds to 6500K light, D70 corresponding to 7000K and so on.

A 3D coordinate system that originates at a point at the origin of the world. Compare to Local Space.
Z-buffer
Raster-based storage of the distance measurement between the camera and the surface points. Surface points which are in front of the camera have a positive Z value and points behind have negative values. The Z-depth map can be visualized as a grayscale image.