词汇表

本页列出Blender和本手册中使用的术语定义。

动作安全区
Area of the screen visible on most devices. Place content inside it to ensure it does not get cut off.
主控

When many items are selected, the last selected item will be the active one. Used in situations where the interface only shows options for one item at a time.

See also selection states.

执行器
A logic brick that acts like a muscle of a life-form. It can move the object or make a sound.
锯齿
以锯齿线的形式渲染物体。
Alpha通道

在图像上添加一个表示透明度的通道。

直通型Alpha
Method where RGBA channels are stored as (R, G, B, A) channels, with the RGB channels unaffected by the alpha channel. This is the alpha type used by paint programs such as Photoshop or Gimp, and used in common file formats like PNG, BMP or Targa. So, image textures or output for the web are usually straight alpha.
预乘型Alpha

Method where RGBA channels are stored as (R × A, G × A, B × A, A), with the alpha multiplied into the RGB channel.

这是渲染引擎的自然输出,RGB通道表示朝向观察者的光线的量,也表示有多少从背景来的光被阻塞。OpenEXR的文件格式使用这种alpha类型。因此,用于渲染和合成的中间文件通常存储为预乘alpha。

(直通型/预乘型)Alpha转换

Conversion between the two alpha types is not a simple operation and can involve data loss, as both alpha types can represent data that the other cannot though it is often subtle.

Straight alpha can be considered to be an RGB color image with a separate alpha mask. In areas where this mask is fully transparent, there can still be colors in the RGB channels. On conversion to premultiplied alpha, this mask is applied and the colors in such areas become black and are lost.

另一方面,预乘型alpha可以同时表示发出光和背景中穿过的光的渲染。例如,一个透明的火的渲染可能会发光,但也让来自它背后的物体穿过。当转换为直通型alpha后,这种效果将消失。

环境光
来自周围整体环境中的光。
环境光遮蔽
关于一个面上的点接受到多少 环境光 的系数。一个在脚下或桌子下的面上的点将比某人头上或桌子顶部上的更暗。
动画
模拟动作。
抗锯齿
请参阅 过采样
骨架
An Object consisting of bones. Used to rig characters, props, etc.
参考线,用来在沿着n维空间中的某个笛卡尔方向上定义坐标。
Axis Angle
Rotation method where X, Y, and Z correspond to the axis definition, while W corresponds to the angle around that axis, in radians.
烘焙
一个对潜在的对时间损耗较大的计算过程进行计算并将结果存储起来的过程。避免再次计算的需要。
倒角
对物体边进行切角或倒角的操作。
贝塞尔
生成和表示一条曲线的计算机图形学技术。
混合模式
颜色混合模式

两种颜色混合在一起的方法。

See also Blend Modes on GIMP docs.

骨骼
搭建起 骨架 的块。由 尾端Roll Angle (定义了一系列局部坐标和关于 部转向的点) 组成。
布尔

一种逻辑类型,用于处理二元的真/假状态。

See also Boolean Modifier.

包围盒
包围住物体的形状的盒子。盒子对齐物体的局部空间。
BU
Blender单位
Internal units used by Blender, equivalent to meters. Often abbreviated to "BU".
凹凸纹理
一种使用一个含有灰度信息的“高度映射”纹理来模拟表面高度上的轻微变化的技术。
BVH
Bounding Volume Hierarchy

A hierarchical structure of geometric objects.

See also Bounding Volume Hierarchy on Wikipedia.

焦散

The optical phenomenon of light concentration focused by specular reflections or refracting objects. In example observable on light passing through a glass of water onto a table or the pattern at the bottom of a swimming pool.

In rendering this refers to diffuse reflected light paths after a glossy or refraction bounce.

See also Caustics on Wikipedia.

子级
受其 父级 影响的 对象
Chroma
Chrominance

In general, a resulting image color decomposition, where its (L or Y) luminance channel is separated. There are two different contexts whereas this term is used:

视频系统
Refers to the general color decomposition resulting in Y (Luminance) and C (Chrominance) channels, whereas the chrominance is represented by: U = ( Blue minus Luminance ) and V = ( Red minus Luminance ).
Matte compositing
Refers to a point in the color gamut surrounded by a mixture of a determined spectrum of its RGB neighboring colors. This point is called Chroma key and this key (a chosen color) is used to create an Alpha Mask. The total amount of gamut space for this chrominance point is defined by users in a circular or square shaped format.
Chromaticities
The coordinates of the primaries on the CIE 1931 xy chromaticity diagram.
限定
Clamping
Limits a variable to a range. The values over or under the range are set to the constant values of the range's minimum or maximum.
Color Gamut
A gamut traditionally refers to the volume of color a particular color model/space can cover. In many instances, it is often illustrated via a 2D model using CIE Yxy coordinates.
色彩空间

A coordinate system in which a vector represent a color value. By doing so, the color space defines three things:

sRGB
A color space that uses the Rec .709 primaries and white point but, with a slightly different transfer function.
HSV

Three values often considered as more intuitive (human perception) than the RGB system.

Hue
The Hue of the color.
Saturation
Also known has colorfulness, saturation is the quantity of hue in the color (from desaturated -- a shade of gray -- to saturated -- brighter colors).
Value
The brightness of the color (dark to light).
HSL
Hue, Saturation
See HSV.
Luminance
See Luminance.
YUV
Luminance-Chrominance standard used in broadcasting analog PAL (European) video.
YCbCr
Luminance-ChannelBlue-ChannelRed Component video for digital broadcast use, whose standards have been updated for HDTV and commonly referred to as the HDMI format for component video.
+A
The color space holds an additional Alpha Channel.
凹面
Face in which one vertex is inside a triangle formed by other vertices of the face.
约束
使用其他 对象 的数据控制一个对象的方法。
控制器
A logic brick that acts like the brain of a life-form. It makes decisions to activate muscles (actuators), using either simple logic or complex Python scripts.
Convex Face
所有面上的两点连接成的线都将在这个面里面。与 凹面 刚好相反。
共面
指的是与三维空间中一个二维面对其的元素的集合。
褶皱
Property of an edge. Used to define the sharpness of edges in subdivision surface meshes.
曲线
A type of object defined in terms of a line interpolated between Control Vertices. Available types of curves include Bézier, NURBS and Poly.
Cyclic
Often referring to an object being circular. This term is often associated with Curve.
漫反射
直射光线离开表面时发生。对于大多数东西,我们看到的主要就是漫反射光。漫反射光来自一个特殊的方向或位置,并形成明暗效果。面向光源的一面较亮些,而背向光源的一面则较为暗些。
平行光
The light that has a specific direction, but no location. It seems to come from an infinitely far away source, like the sun. Surfaces facing the light are illuminated more than surfaces facing away, but their location does not matter. A Directional Light illuminates all objects in the scene, no matter where they are.
移位贴图
A method for distorting vertices based on an image or texture. Similar to Bump Mapping, but instead operates on the mesh's actual geometry. This relies on the mesh having enough geometry to represent details in the image.
Display Referenced
Refers to an image whose Luminance channel is limited to a certain range of values (usually 0-1). The reason it is called display referenced is because a display cannot display an infinite range of values. So, the term Scene Referenced must go through a transfer function to be converted from one to the other.
DOF
Depth Of Field
The distance in front of and behind the subject which appears to be in focus. For any given lens setting, there is only one distance at which a subject is precisely in focus, but focus falls off gradually on either side of that distance, so there is a region in which the blurring is tolerable. This region is greater behind the point of focus than it is in front, as the angle of the light rays change more rapidly; they approach being parallel with increasing distance.
双缓冲
用来在屏幕上绘制并显示内容的一种技术。Blender使用两个缓冲区(图像)来将界面绘制进去。在其中一个缓冲正在绘制的时候,会显示另一个缓冲的内容。当绘制结束后,将交换两个缓冲的内容。
连接两个 顶点 的直线段,可以作为 的一部分。
环边
连续的 四边形 上的 链。边环在极点或边界处终止,否则,它就是循环相接的。
边环
指的是所有属于哪些共享环中两个面的 环面 的路径。
空物体
没有任何 顶点对象
环境贴图
用于计算反射的一种技术。它是在关键的位置渲染成图像,并将它作为纹理赋给镜子。现在,在大多数情况下已弃用该方法,改为使用较慢但使用方便、精度又高的射线跟踪技术。
Euler
欧拉旋转
Rotation method where rotations applied on each X, Y, Z-axis component.
F-Curve
保存一个特定属性的动画值的曲线。
Mesh element that defines a piece of surface. It consists of three or more edges.
环面
Chain of consecutive quads. A face loop stops at a triangle or N-gon (which do not belong to the loop), or at a boundary. Otherwise, it is cyclic.
面法线
垂直于 所在平面的归一化向量。每个面都有它自己的法线。
视野
物体在相机中可见的区域。参见 焦距
焦距
The distance required by a lens to focus collimated light. Defines the magnification power of a lens. Also see Field of View.
Frame Types

In video compression, a frame can be compressed by several different algorithms. These algorithms are known as picture types or frame types and there are three major types: I, P, and B frames.

I‑frames
The least compressible but don't require other video frames to decode.
P‑frames
Use data from previous frames to decompress and are more compressible than I‑frames.
B‑frames
Use both previous and forward frames for data reference to get the highest amount of compression.
FSAA
Full-Screen Anti-Aliasing

图形显卡中使用的一种 抗锯齿 方法,将平滑地显示整个图像。也称作 多重采样

This can be enabled in the User Preferences. On many graphics cards, this can also be enabled in the driver options.

对比度

调整图像明亮度的操作。

See also Gamma correction on Wikipedia.

几何中心
组成物体的所有顶点的位置的平均值。
Gimbal

A pivoted support that allows the rotation of an object about a single axis.

See also Gimbal on Wikipedia.

万向轴死锁

可以对齐的轴旋向的局限,将失去在轴向(与 欧拉旋转 相联系)旋转的能力。

全局光照
A superset of radiosity and ray tracing. The goal is to compute all possible light interactions in a given scene, and thus, obtain a truly photo-realistic image. All combinations of diffuse and specular reflections and transmissions must be accounted for. Effects such as color bleeding and caustics must be included in a global illumination simulation.
全局空间
参见 世界空间
Glossy Map
See Roughness Map.
高氏着色
不使用计算复杂度高的逐像素光照计算,并对低多边形面实现平滑光照的方法。这种技术在1971年被 Henri Gouraud 首次提出。
HDRI
High Dynamic Range Image

获得的动态曝光度范围比普通电子成像技术高的一些列技术。其目标是精确表现出现实场景中从阳光直射到深阴影范围内的宽强度级别内容。

See also HDRI on Wikipedia.

骨骼 的子组件。所属 骨骼 的旋转点。包含有 骨架 对象局部空间 中的X、Y和Z坐标。用在与 尾端 的接合上来对 姿态模式 中的 骨骼局部 Y轴进行定义。绘制成 八面体 时的两个大端。
插值
The process of calculating new data between points of known value, like keyframes.
反向动力学
The process of determining the movement of interconnected segments of a body or model. Using ordinary Kinematics on a hierarchically structured object you can, for example, move the shoulder of a puppet. The upper and lower arm and hand will automatically follow that movement. IK will allow you to move the hand and let the lower and upper arm go along with the movement. Without IK the hand would come off the model and would move independently in space.
IOR
折射率
A property of transparent materials. When a light ray travels through the same volume it follows a straight path. However, if it passes from one transparent volume to another, it bends. The angle by which the ray is bent can be determined by the IOR of the materials of both volumes.
关键帧
A frame in an animated sequence drawn or otherwise constructed directly by the user. In classical animation, when all frames were drawn by animators, the senior artist would draw these frames, leaving the "in between" frames to an apprentice. Now, the animator creates only the first and last frames of a simple sequence (keyframes); the computer fills in the gap.
插入关键帧
通过插入 关键帧 来建立动画序列。
晶格

晶格是一种由不可渲染的三维顶点栅格构成的物体。

See also Lattice Modifier.

A device for organizing objects. See also Layers.
Light Bounces
Refers to the reflection or transmission of a light ray upon interaction with a material. See also Light Paths.
局部空间

A 3D coordinate system that originates (for Objects) at the Object Origin. or (for Bones) at the Head of the Bone.

世界空间 相对。

Logic brick
Blender 游戏逻辑中的功能单元的一种图形表现形式。一个逻辑块可以作为一个 传感器控制器执行器
Luminance
The intensity of light either in an image/model channel, or emitted from a surface per square unit in a given direction.
流形
Manifold meshes, also called water tight meshes, define a closed non-self-intersecting volume (see also non-manifold). A manifold mesh is a mesh in which the structure of the connected faces in a closed volume will always point the normals (and there surfaces) to the outside or to the inside of the mesh without any overlaps. If you recalculate those normals, they will always point at a predictable direction (To the outside or to the inside of the volume). When working with non-closed volumes, a manifold mesh is a mesh in which the normals will always define two different and non-consecutive surfaces. A manifold mesh will always define an even number of non-overlapped surfaces.
遮片
遮罩
A grayscale image used to include or exclude parts of an image. A matte is applied as an Alpha Channel, or it is used as a mix factor when applying Color Blend Modes.
网格
顶点 组成的一种物体类型。
Micropolygons
A polygon roughly the size of a pixel or smaller.
MIP
多级纹理
Mipmapping

'MIP' is an acronym of the Latin phrase 'multum in parvo', meaning 'much in little'. Mipmaps are progressively lower resolution representations of an image, generally reduced by half squared interpolations using anti-aliasing. Mipmapping is the process used to calculate lower resolutions of the same image, reducing memory usage to help speed visualization, but increasing memory usage for calculations and allocation. Mipmapping is also a process used to create small anti-aliased samples of an image used for texturing. The mipmapping calculations are made by CPUs, but modern graphic processors can be selected for this task and are way faster.

See the Mipmap option present in the System Preferences.

动态模糊
观察一个快速移动的物体时发生的现象。视觉暂留的原因,物体将表现得模糊。模拟动态模糊让电脑动画看起来更加真实。
多重采样
See FSAA.
多边面(N-gon)
一个含有多于四个 顶点
Non-linear Animation
一种动画技术,允许动画师整体编辑动作,而不只是独立的键。非线性动画允许通过结合、混合和调合不同的动作来创建新的动画。
非流形

Non-Manifold meshes essentially define geometry which cannot exist in the real world. This kind of geometry is not suitable for several types of operations, especially those where knowing the volume (inside/outside) of the object is important (refraction, fluids, booleans, or 3D printing, to name a few). A non-manifold mesh is a mesh in which the structure of a non-overlapped surface (based on its connected faces) will not determine the inside or the outside of a volume based on its normals, defining a single surface for both sides, but ended with flipped normals. When working with non-closed volumes, a non-manifold mesh will always determine at least one discontinuity in the normal directions, either by an inversion of a connected loop, or by an odd number of surfaces. A non-manifold mesh will always define an odd number of surfaces.

有多种非流形几何体。

  • 一些边界和空穴(只有单一连接面的边),若没有厚度的面。
  • 不属于任何面(或线)的边和顶点。
  • Edges connected to three or more faces (interior faces).
  • Vertices belonging to faces that are not adjoining (e.g. two cones sharing the vertex at the apex).

See also: Select Non-Manifold tool.

法线

归一化矢量垂直于一个表面。

法线可以被分配到顶点,面和调制整个使用表面 法向映射

法向映射
Is similar to Bump mapping, but instead of the image being a grayscale heightmap, the colors define in which direction the normal should be shifted, the three color channels being mapped to the three directions X, Y and Z. This allows more detail and control over the effect.
NURBS
Non-uniform Rational Basis Spline
A computer graphics technique for generating and representing curves and surfaces.
对象
Container for a type (Mesh, Curve, Surface, Metaball, Text, Armature, Lattice, Empty, Camera, Lamp) and basic 3D transform data (Object Origin).
Object Center
Object Origin
用于位置、 旋转和缩放的参考点 对象 并定义其 局部空间 的坐标。
八面体
通常用来描绘八面图 骨头骨架
OpenGL

绘制3D图形,经常服用的硬件加速功能使用搅拌机(和许多其它图形应用)的图形系统。

See also OpenGL on Wikipedia.

过采样

表示以较低的分辨率高分辨率信号时 锯齿 是最小化的技术中。

Also called Anti-Aliasing.

过扫描

The term used to describe the situation. when not all of a televised image is present on a viewing screen.

See also Overscan on Wikipedia.

父级
对象,会影响其 子级 对象。
父级:
为两个 对象 创建 父级-子级 关系。
粒子系统
Technique that simulates certain kinds of fuzzy phenomena, which are otherwise very hard to reproduce with conventional rendering techniques. Common examples include fire, explosions, smoke, sparks, falling leaves, clouds, fog, snow, dust, meteor tails, stars, and galaxies, or abstract visual effects like glowing trails, magic spells. Also used for things like fur, grass or hair.
冯氏
Local illumination model that can produce a certain degree of realism in three-dimensional objects by combining three elements: diffuse, specular and ambient for each considered point on a surface. It has several assumptions -- all lights are points, only surface geometry is considered, only local modeling of diffuse and specular, specular color is the same as light color, ambient is a global constant.
轴心点

The pivot point is the point in space around which all rotations, scalings and mirror transformations are centered.

See also the Pivot Point docs.

像素点
在一个二维光栅图像信息的最小单位,代表单一颜色由红,绿,蓝信道的。如果图像有 Alpha通道 ,像素将包含一个对应的第四通道。
旋转极向轴
Vertex 其中三,五,以上边相遇。连接到一个,两个,或四个边缘顶点的是不是一个极点。
姿态模式
用于 posing, keyframing, weight painting, constraining and parenting the bones of an armature.
姿势
移动、 旋转和缩放 骨头骨架 实现为一个字符一个美观的姿势。
预乘型Alpha
See Alpha Channel.
Primaries
In color theory, a primary (often known as primary color) is the abstract lights, using an absolute model, that make up a color space.
基本体
一个基本的目的,可以用来作为基础建模更复杂的对象。
程序纹理
Computer generated (generic) textures that can be configured via different parameters.
投射

在计算机图形学中有用于两个常见相机突起。

透视
A perspective view is geometrically constructed by taking a scene in 3D and placing an observer at point O. The 2D perspective scene is built by placing a plane (e.g. a sheet of paper) where the 2D scene is to be drawn in front of point O, perpendicular to the viewing direction. For each point P in the 3D scene a PO line is drawn, passing by O and P. The intersection point S between this PO line and the plane is the perspective projection of that point. By projecting all points P of the scene you get a perspective view.
正交
In an orthographic projection, you have a viewing direction but not a viewing point O. The line is then drawn through point P so that it is parallel to the viewing direction. The intersection S between the line and the plane is the orthographic projection of the point P. By projecting all points P of the scene you get the orthographic view.
Quad
Quadrilateral
Quadrangle
Face that contains exactly four vertices.
Quaternion
Quaternion Rotation
Rotation method where rotations are defined by four values (X, Y, Z, and W). X, Y, and Z also define an axis, and W an angle, but it is quite different from Axis Angle.
世界(环境颜色,光线传递,环境光遮蔽)

A global lighting method that calculates patterns of light and shadow for rendering graphics images from three-dimensional models. One of the many different tools which can simulate diffuse lighting in Blender.

See also Radiosity (computer graphics) on Wikipedia.

光线追踪
Rendering technique that works by tracing the path taken by a ray of light through the scene, and calculating reflection, refraction, or absorption of the ray whenever it intersects an object in the world. More accurate than scanline, but much slower.
折射
The change in direction of a wave due to a change in velocity. It happens when waves travel from a medium with a given index of refraction to a medium with another. At the boundary between the media, the wave changes direction; its wavelength increases or decreases but frequency remains constant.
渲染
的计算生成三维几何2D图像的过程。
RGB
A color model based on the traditional primary colors, Red/Green/Blue. RGB colors are also directly broadcasted to most computer monitors.
左/右骨命名在 rig 简单的一个例子。
一种系统的关系,以决定物体的移动。这种制度建设的行为。
Roll
Roll Angle
The orientation of the local X and Z axes of a Bone. Has no effect on the local Y axis as local Y is determined by the location of the Head and Tail.
Roughness Map
A grayscale texture that defines how rough or smooth the surface of a material is. This may also be known as a Glossy Map.
使用反向Z缓冲渲染材质所在面 (仅扫描线)
Rendering technique. Much faster than raytracing, but allows fewer effects, such as reflections, refractions, motion blur and focal blur.
Scene Referenced

An image whose Luminance channel is not limited.

See also Display Referenced.

传感器
A logic brick that acts like a sense of a life-form. It reacts to touch, vision, collision, etc.
着色
改变一个对象/表面的三维场景的颜色,是根据它的角度灯和灯的距离以创建逼真的效果的过程。
平滑
Defines how faces are shaded. Faces can be either solid (faces are rendered flat) or smooth (faces are smoothed by interpolating the normal on every point of the face).
Specular Light
光这恰恰体现,像一面镜子。也用来指突出的反光物体。
SSS
Subsurface Scattering
的光传输,其中光穿过半透明物体的表面机构,被散射通过与材料相互作用,并且退出表面在不同的点。所有非金属材料是半透明到一定程度。特别是,材料,如大理石,皮肤,乳和极难切实模拟没有考虑表面散射考虑。
直通型Alpha
See Alpha Channel.
网格细分工具
技术添加更多几何网格。它创建于细分边缘,细分,并根据新边的新面之间的新边的新顶点。如果新的边跨一个新的顶点是在它们的交叉点创建。
Subsurf
Subdivision Surface

创造更高的光滑表面的聚能采取低多边形网格作为输入法。

See also Catmull-Clark subdivision surface on Wikipedia.

尾端
A subcomponent of a Bone. Has X, Y and Z coordinates measured in the Local Space of the Armature Object. Used in conjunction with the Head to define the local Y axis of a Bone in Pose Mode. The smaller of the two ends when drawn as an Octahedron.
Tessellation
The tiling of a plane using one or more geometric shapes usually resulting in Micropolygons.
纹理(Texture)
指定在表面的视觉模式和模拟物理表面结构。
Texture Space
The bounding box to use when using Generated mapping to add a Texture to an image.
时间码
在录像带或电影给有关帧编号、 时间的记录或暴露的信息的编码的信号。
动作安全区:
Area of the screen visible on all devices. Place text and graphics inside this area to make sure they do not get cut off.
拓扑
The arrangement of Vertices, Edges, and Faces which define the shape of a mesh. See vertex, edge, and face.
变换
The combined idea of location, rotation, and scale.
三角网格图标
Face with exactly three vertices.
UV Map
定义了一个三维网状物的表面与2D纹理之间的关系。详细地,网格的每个面被映射到纹理上的相应表面。它是可能的,往往常见的做法网格的几个面映射到纹理的相同或重叠的区域。
顶点
Vertices
A point in 3D space containing a location. It may also have a defined color. Vertices are the terminating points of edges.
Vertex Group顶点组
Collection of vertices. Vertex groups are useful for limiting operations to specific areas of a mesh.
体素数据纹理的设定
A cubic 3D equivalent to the square 2D pixel. The name is a combination of the terms "Volumetric" and "Pixel". Used to store smoke and fire data from physics simulations.
行走循环
In animation, a walk cycle is a character that has just the walking function animated. Later on in the animation process, the character is placed in an environment and the rest of the functions are animated.
权重绘制
Assigning vertices to Vertex Groups with a weight of 0.0 - 1.0.
White Point

A reference value for white light defined by what happens when all the primaries, of the particular color model, are combined evenly.

A white point is defined by a set of CIE illuminates which correspond to a color temperature. For example, D65 corresponds to 6500K light, D70 corresponding to 7000K and so on.

世界空间
A 3D coordinate system that originates at a point at the origin of the world. Compare to Local Space.
Z-buffer
Raster-based storage of the distance measurement between the camera and the surface points. Surface points which are in front of the camera have a positive Z value and points behind have negative values. The Z-Depth map can be visualized as a grayscale image.